Alyaa E. By Alyaa E. • January 3, 2019

Additive Manufacturing Technologies Overview

Familiarize yourself with additive manufacturing technologies that are available in the market today. Below is a description of the general material type and machine manufacturers that have developed their technology around these use cases.

Introduction

When there are so many Additive Manufacturing (AM) technologies and materials in the market, it could be overwhelming for people to identify the ideal technology for specific applications. Since there are many technologies available in the market, the goal of this article is to help categorize and summarize each Additive Manufacturing technology. 

 

UPDATEDAMTECHINFO-7 Download High Definition Infographic

  

Sheet Lamination

LOM  Laminated Object Manufacturing

Laminated Object Manufacturing (LOM) is a 3D Printing method that was developed by Helisys Inc. (now Cubic Technologies).

LOM 3D Printing Process - During the LOM process, layers of paper, plastic, metal or composites are laminated together with adhesive on a build platform. A heat roller will pass over the material, which adds pressure and heat, causing the adhesive to fuse the materials together. A computer-controlled laser or blade will then cut the material based on the pattern. Once a layer of the object has been formed, the build platform will lowered.

 LOM Post Processing - Once the part is done printing, it is removed from the build platform. Excess material must be cut away. Objects can be sanded or finished to enable a smooth surface. Paint or lacquer can be applied to avoid the paper from absorbing moisture.

 Advantages & Disadvantages of LOM - Although LOM isn't as accurate has stereolithography (SLA) or selective sintering (SLS), it does offer several advantages. LOM does not require an enclosed chamber for production, making it easier for building large models. Materials for LOM are also inexpensive. LOM isn't ideal for creating complex geometries or parts with hollow sections. Therefore, LOM can't be used to produce functional prototypes.

 Use Cases of LOM - LOM is often used for creating scaled models, conceptual prototypes for form and design testing. It is also used for pattern making for sand molded casting or metal casting processes.

 LOM 3D Printers - EnvisionTec SLCOM - Selective Lamination Composite Object Manufacturing. The SLCOM builds solid parts using layer-by-layer laminated thermoplastic composite fabric sheets from a roll of industrial thermoplastics with women composites that are impregnated by thermoplastics.

Mcor ARKe is a 3D printer that utilizes paper-based Selective Deposition Lamination (SDL) technology with Inkjet printing.

 

 

Material Extrusion 

FDM  Fused Deposition Modelling

Fused Deposition Modeling(FDM), or Fused Filament Fabrication (FFF), is a 3D printings method that uses continuous thermoplastic filament.

2-fdm-steps  Figure 1 FDM technology - Image from 3D HUBS

 FDM 3D Printing Process - In FDM, an object is built by depositing melted material in a predetermined path layer-by-layer.

FDM Post Processing - Once the part is printed, it needs to be removed from the build plate. Then the supports are either manually removed or dissolved using the appropriate solvent. You can also sand, cold weld, gap fill, metal plate, polish, prime and paint, dip in solvent, and epoxy coat the printed object.

Advantages & Disadvantages of FDM - FDM advantages include high strength, cost- effective, and waterproof material. Many material colors are available. FDM lays down layers like a hot glue gun.. This leads to ribbing, and you can see lines from each layer. Polishing or sanding can be added to remove these lines.

Use Cases of FDM - With Stratasys FDM printers like the Fortus 900mc, automotive industries can quickly alter designs and launch products faster than traditional manufacturing.

FDM 3D Printers - Stratasys Fortus Series is an all in one rapid prototyping system built for production. Stratasys Mojo is the starting point for professional 3D printing. Stratasys 380mc and Stratasys 450mc are built for production. Stratasys F Series, MarkForged Mark Series is the only printer that allows you to go from CAD to beautiful end-use parts in hours. Ultimaker machines are used to achieve complex designs. Desktop Metal printers have advanced print capabilities and scalability for increased throughput.

 

 

Vat Polymerization

SLA  Stereolithography

SLA is first 3D Printing technology: its inventor patented the technology back in 1986.

SLA 3D Printing Process - In SLA, UV laser beams cure the polymer resin layer-by-layer to create the object. The materials used in SLA are thermoset polymers that come in liquid form.

SLA Post Processing - The support structure is broken off from the model, leaving a bumpy surface. In order to have better dimensional accuracy requiring high quality surface finish, the object is to be sanded after the print. Other types of post processing include: wet sanding, mineral oil finish, spray paint, and polish.

Advantages & Disadvantages of SLA - SLA can produce intricate, dimensionally accurate parts.The mechanical properties and visual appearance of SLA parts will degrade when exposed to sunlight. Colors are limited in SLA printing.

Use Cases of SLA - SLA is used across many industries, including Aerospace, Automotive, Industrial and Medical sectors to reduce cost for producing tools, jigs and fixtures, speed up design and testing for medical devices, and developing clear aligners for the orthodontics industry.

SLA 3D Printers - Formlabs Form 2 is known for its ability to use laser to cure solid isotropic from liquid photopolymer resins that they launch regularly to open up new use cases for applications across multiple industries. For the consumer market, DWS XFab is known as the “Best Personal 3D Printer in 2017) from the 3D Printing Industry Awards.

 

DLP  Digital Light Processing

DLP is the oldest of the 3D printing technologies, created Larry Hornbeck back in 1987. It’s similar to SLA because it utilizes photopolymers.

DLP 3D Printing Process - DLP uses a digital projector screen to flash a single image of each layer across the entire platform at once. The image of each layer is composed of square pixels, resulting in a layer formed from small rectangular bricks or voxels. 

DLP Post Processing - Sanding to remove voxel appearance, support removal, curing, smoothing, primer, coating/painting.

Advantages & Disadvantages of DLP - DLP can achieve fast print times for some parts, as each entire layer is exposed all at once. Low cost printing and low waste production.

Use Cases of DLP -  Used to create models, prototypes, patterns, and production parts for a range of industries from engineering and product design to manufacturing, dentistry, jewelry, and model making.

 DLP 3D Printers - Asiga Pico 2, Flashforge Hunter, Sprintray Moonray, EnvisionTEC machines. 3D Systems FabPro 1000 is focused on enabling low-volume and small-part prototyping across high-quality materials using DLP Stereolithography with a projector to image each layer within a UV-curable liquid material. Additional machines include: Prodways L Series, Prodways LD Series, and Prodways L Series D printers.

 

CDLP Continuous Digital Light Processing

EnvisionTEC launched its Continuous Digital Light Manufacturing (Processing)  technology in early 2016.

CDLP 3D Printing Process - Photosensitive polymers are cured as the build plate moves in the Z-direction.

CDLP Post Processing - The resulting object is in a green state, so post-processing is required. It is baked in a forced-circulation oven. 

Advantages & Disadvantages of CDLP - All CDLP / CDLM machines offer dynamic resolution in the Z-axis. 

Use Cases of CDLP - Highly accurate renderings of external and internal geometry of bone tissue. Other use cases include applications for dental, orthodontics, hearing aid and manufacturing.

CDLP 3D Printers - EnvisionTEC’s Vida Series with continuous motion of the build plate, this printer delivers exceptional build speeds. The Vida Series offers high resolution prints with outstanding surface quality.

 

ISLA Inverted Stereolithography

In inverted stereolithography, the SLA process is turned upside down.

 ISLA 3D Printing Process - A transparent bottom and non stick surface serves as a substrate for the liquid resin to cure against. A build platform is lowered into a resin tank, leaving space equal to the layer height in between the build platform and the bottom of the tank.

ISLA Post Processing - The parts remain on the build platform in the green state once build is complete. Adding a post-cure chamber to the printing process finalizes the polymerization process and stabilizes the mechanical properties of the part.

Advantages & Disadvantages of ISLA - The build volume can exceed the volume of the tank which is a huge advantage. Due to the forces affecting the print when it’s separated from the surface of the tank  larger support structures are required to keep the part attached to the build platform.

Use Cases of ISLA - Engineering resins simulate a wide range of injection-molded plastics which helps engineers prototype, test and manufacture final products. Dental materials allow dental labs to create a range of personalized dental products for consumers. Prototyping and casting jewellery goes hand in hand with both SLA and iSLA because inexpensive prototypes can be created.

ISLA 3D Printers - Shining iSLA-350 is a user friendly, high stability, and perfect print result machine. Formlabs Form Series delivers high resolution parts at the fraction of the cost of industrial 3D printers.

 

DLS  Digital Light Synthesis

DLS is the process enabled by joining the Carbon CLIP technology, a photochemical process using both light and oxygen to build parts, with engineering grade materials. The result is production capable parts with exquisite mechanical properties, resolution and surface finish.

DLS 3D Printing Process - The result is production grade parts with great mechanical properties, resolution and surface finish.

DLS Post Processing - Part is washed and baked in a forced circulation oven. Heat sets off a secondary chemical reaction that forces the material to harden and set.

Advantages & Disadvantages of DLS - Some advantages of DLS are faster build time, production quality surface finishes, good mechanical properties.

Use Cases of DLS - From tennis shoes, electronics, to industrial components and customizable medical devices. DLS allows previously impossible designs, such as complex assemblies combined to a single part, or lattices that aren’t attainable by machining or molding processes. 

DLS 3D Printers - Carbon M2 Printer allows for larger parts and higher throughput with low part cost at a high resolution.

  

3SP Scan, Spin, and Selectively Procure

Scan, Spin and Selectively Procure (3SP). It’s a completely unique approach to 3D printing objects quickly and accurately that is unique to EnvisionTEC.

3SP 3D Printing Process - Uses a UV laser to rapidly scan, spin and selectively photocure a wide variety of resins into large, durable parts.

 3SP Post Processing - First the part is cleaned then there is minimal need for post processing. Using a UV light curing box, the part is cured resulting in high strength and stability parts.

 Advantages & Disadvantages of 3SP - Great accuracy and surface finish of final printed part.

Use Cases of 3SP - 3SP printers can build a wide range of manufacturing objects, from functional gears, valves and pumps to fasteners, and jigs.

3SP 3D Printers - EnvisionTEC 3SP Family used for serious manufacturing for larger objects with high accuracy. Can be used for a wide variety of consumer and automotive applications.

 

 

Material Jetting 

MJ  Material Jetting

Material Jetting (MJ) is an AM process that operates in a similar fashion to 2D printers.

Figure 2 MJ technology  - Image from 3D HUBS

MJ 3D Printing Process - Part is printed layer-by-layer using a UV light that solidifies droplets of photosensitive material dispensed by a printhead. The materials used in MJ are thermoset acrylics that come in a liquid form.

MJ Post Processing - Usually consists of support removal with little trace of supports having been there.

Advantages & Disadvantages of MJ - MJ 3D Printing creates parts of high dimensional accuracy with a very smooth surface finish. Material jetted parts are mainly suitable for non-functional prototype because they have poor mechanical properties.

Use Cases of MJ - MJ is suitable for visual prototypes and tooling manufacturing.

 MJ 3D Printers - Stratasys Connex has agility and aesthetics at every stage of production.One major advantage is its ability to load multiple materials at once giving the user an advantage to print parts that require a range of mechanical and optical properties. Stratasys Objet uses precision to bring to life prints that embody the product vision down to the smallest detail. 3D Systems Projet provide unparalleled full color 3D printing at exceptional print speeds and low cost. Additional machines include: XJet.

 

DOD Drop on Demand

Liquid droplets of wax or metal jetted to  form solid 3D printed parts.

 DOD 3D Printing Process - Drop-On-Demand (DOD) printheads dispense viscous liquids and create wax-like parts. For metal printing, a metal wire is fed into a DOD printhead and liquefied to create a pool that fills an ejection chamber with a nozzle. Once the chamber is filled, a pulsed magnetic field is applied that permeates the chamber and that causes it to be ejected out the nozzle in the form of a droplet.

Use Cases of DOD - DOD is used almost exclusively for manufacturing investment casting patterns. While many different technologies may be used to print a battery, drop-on-demand (DoD) printing has the advantage of being highly custom, with the ability to produce both very thin and thick batteries.

DOD 3D Printers - SolidScape S Series creates ultra-accurate, directly castable wax models with complex geometries, clean burnout and superior surface finish. SolidScape 3Z Series translate complex, innovative designs into durable wax models that are ready for direct casting.

 

NPJ  Nanoparticle Jetting

Liquid suspensions containing solid nanoparticles of selected build and support materials are jetted onto the build tray to additively manufactured detailed parts.

NPJ 3D Printing Process - Ultrathin layers of build and support materials are jetted onto the build tray. 

NPJ Post Processing - After the part is manufactured, the support structure disintegrates easily from the finished part. Produced parts undergo a simple overnight sintering process.

 Advantages & Disadvantages of NPJ - Support materials are removed without harming the part, reducing the need for time consuming post processing.

Use Cases of NPJ -  NPJ technology enables the production of metal and ceramic AM parts featuring high levels of detailing, finish and accuracy. Delivers physical and operational advantages.

 NPJ 3D Printers - After many years of intensive research, the XJet Carmel Series features three dimensions of innovation, detail, dispersion, and design freedom. NPJ technology enables superfine details, smooth surfaces and high accuracy at unprecedented levels.Liquid suspensions for build and support materials are delivered in sealed cartridges, offering unrivaled user safety and operational simplicity. With support structures made of a separate material removed effortlessly, manufacturers can easily create finished parts of virtually any geometry.

  

 

Powder Bed Fusion

MJF Multi Jet Fusion

In MJF a fusing agent is dispensed on the powder that absorbs infrared light. An infrared energy source then passes over the build platform and fuses the area.

MJF 3D Printing Process - A thin layer of powder is first spread over the build platform where it is heated to a sintering temperature. A carriage with inkjet nozzles passes over the bed, depositing fusing agent on the powder. At the same time a detailing agent is printed near the edge of the part.

MJF Post Processing - Cooling and powder removal.

Advantages & Disadvantages of MJF - MJF parts have superior strength and flexibility and more similar mechanical properties. 

Use Cases of MJF - Prototypes for form, fit and function testing.

 MJF 3D Printers - HP Jet Fusion Series creating parts with full range of color in a fraction of the time. Tailored to small to medium sized production.

  

SLS Selective Laser Sintering

Figure 3  Selective laser sintering technology -  Image by 3D HUBS

 

Selective Laser Sintering (SLS) is an AM process that belongs to the Powder Bed Fusion family. Particles of powder are selectively sintered using a laser in SLS, fusing them together and building a part layer-by-layer. The materials used in SLS are thermoplastic polymers.

SLS 3D Printing Process - The powder bin and the build area are heated below the melting temperature of the polymer and the recoater spreads a thin layer of powder over the build platform. Particles of the powder are sintered using a CO2 laser that scans the next layer. When the layer is complete, the blade re-coats the surface. This process continues until build is complete.

SLS Post Processing - After printing, the parts are fully coated in the unused powder and the powder bin has to cool down before the parts can be removed, which can take quite a long time. The parts are then cleaned with blasting media. The remaining unsintered powder is collected to be reused.

Advantages & Disadvantages of SLS - SLS parts have good mechanical properties, making them ideal for prototypes. SLS parts require post processing due to their grainy surface and internal porosity.

Use Cases of SLS - SLS 3D Printing is used for prototyping and low volume production of component parts. Although production roles for SLS are expanding as the AM industry expands.

SLS 3D Printers -  EOS P Series system for processing high performance polymers in a cost efficient and high performance way. Formlabs Fuse 1 allows for managing prototyping and production at a tenth of the cost of existing SLS machines. Additional machines include: 3D Systems machines, and Sintratec S Series.

 

DMLS Direct Metal Laser Sintering

Direct Metal Laser Sintering (DMLS) is a direct metal laser melting (DMLM) technology that can create complex geometries not possible by traditional metal manufacturing.

DMLS 3D Printing Process - The DMLS machine uses a high power laser. Inside the build chamber, there is a material dispensing platform and a build platform with a recoater blade used to move new powder over the build platform. The technology fuses metal powder into a solid part by melting it using the laser beam. Parts are built up layer by layer.

DMLS Post Processing - Usually do not need to be cast or machined after print.

Advantages & Disadvantages of DMLS - DMLS and produce accurate metal components in less time than other manufacturing methods. It is also cost effective.

Use Cases of DMLS - Metal 3D printing is ideal for complex oil and gas components, custom medical guides, aerospace parts and tough functional prototypes.

DMLS 3D Printers - EOS M Series is a highly productive system for high performance metal components. Additional machines include: Matsuura Lumex Series.

 

SLM Selective Laser Melting/ DMLM Direct Metal Laser Melting

Metallic powders are fused together using a high power-density laser using Selective Laser Melting (SLM) technique.

 SLM 3D Printing Process - Thin layers of fine metal powder are evenly distributed using a coating mechanism onto a metal plate. This takes place inside a chamber containing a tightly controlled inert argon or nitrogen gas. Once each layer has been distributed, slice of the part is fused by selectively melting the powder using a high power laser beam.

SLM Post Processing - Vibratory finishing, abrasive flow machining, plasma polishing and micro machining.

Advantages & Disadvantages of SLM - EDM/ Grinding machine required otherwise post processing will be too time consuming.

 Use Cases of SLM - For tooling, fixtures, and jigs. Some applications also include rotors and impellers for the aerospace industry.

SLM 3D Printers - EOS M Series is a highly productive system for high performance metal components.  SLM Machines robust high performance machine with highest productivity for series production.  Concept Laser M Line ideal machines for manufacturing parts with delicate structures., Concept Laser X Line is the world’s largest metal melting machine for manufacture of functional components. Renishaw AM Series use metal powder bed fusion technology to build complex components direct from digital CAD files. Additional machines include: Velo3D Sapphire System, Coherent ORlaser ORLAS Creator machine, and DMG Mori Lasertec SLM.

 

LMF Laser Metal Fusion

Laser metal fusion is often referred to as metal 3D printing, powder bed fusion, or selective laser melting. 

LMF 3D Printing Process -  Powder is added to the platform then the laser builds up the part layer by layer. Using a CAD model, the laser accordingly melts the powder and joins defined point on the layer underneath.

LMF Post Processing - Vibratory finishing, abrasive flow machining, plasma polishing and micro machining.

Advantages & Disadvantages of LMF - Has no limits to the designs that can be made, can be produced rather quickly. It is also cost effective and flexible in design. LMF also produces stable and low weight parts.

Use Cases of LMF - LMF is used in aviation and aerospace, automotive, and medical technology sectors.

LMF 3D Printers - Trumpf TruPrint 1000 and TruPrint 3000 are compact and robust machines for generative production of industrial parts.

 

EBM Electron Beam Melting

Electron beam melting is an AM process in which metal powder or filament is completely melted by a beam of electrons. 

EBM 3D Printing Process - Using a tungsten filament in the electron beam gun, a cloud of electrons that accelerate to approximately one-half the speed of light are created.  A magnetic field focuses the beam to the desired diameter. A second magnetic field directs the beam of electrons to the desired spot on the print bed.

EBM Post Processing - Post-processing methods, including hot isostatic pressing (HIP), a manufacturing process used to reduce the porosity of metals and increase the density of many ceramic materials, and heat treatment. Both of which improve the material's mechanical properties and workability. 

Advantages & Disadvantages of EBM - Build rates are often 4 times faster than those of other AM technologies.

Use Cases of EBM - The U.S. Food and Drug Administration first cleared orthopedic implants created with EBM technology in 2012. Several years later, the FDA approved craniofacial implants printed by EBM machines.

EBM 3D Printers - Arcam Q Series specifically designed for cost-efficient production of aerospace components, such as turbine blades, structural airframe components and much more. Arcam A Series is designed for production of functional parts within aerospace, as well as general industry for a wide range of materials. Additional machines include: JEOL, AddUp 3A series, and Freemelt ONE.

 

ADAM Atomic Diffusion Additive Manufacturing

ADAM is a metal 3D printing method that can produce quality metal parts.

ADAM 3D Printing Process - When the plastic is melted off, the metal powders can be arranged in specific shapes. The metal is sintered into a design once the plastic is melted off. The process works layer by layer. This allows for an entire part to created seamlessly with durability.

ADAM Post Processing - After printing you sinter the part in a furnace, burning off the binder and solidifying the powder into the final fully-dense metal part.

ADAM Advantages & Disadvantages - It is a step towards digital metal manufacturing because it allows for geometric complexity in metal shapes with lowered costs.

Use Cases of ADAM - ADAM can be applied to many industries like aerospace, weapons manufacturing, tools and infrastructure.

ADAM 3D Printers - Markforged Metal X is an end to end manufacturing solution that has everything you need to go from design to fully functional metal parts in under 24 hours.

 

PLS Plastic Laser Sintering

Prodways, in partnership with Hunan Farsoon, developed a full range of industrial plastic laser sintering 3D printers using PLS technology. PLS offers high precision and accuracy for all plastic printed parts.

PLS 3D Printing Process - A digital scanning system projects a high-powered laser on the powder bed surface to fuse powdered material in the exact areas required by the 3D CAD file.The powder bed is lowered by the thickness of one layer, after each layer has been scanned. A roller then applies a new layer of material, evenly spreading the powder which reduces the overall material waste. 

PLS Post Processing - After the part is printed, blast media is used to clean the part. However, no support removal is necessary with PLS. 

Advantages & Disadvantages of PLS -  PLS reduces operational costs, has advanced thermal stability for optimized mechanical properties, as well as having high temperature configurations to process high performance plastic materials. 

Use Cases of PLS - Prototyping, mechanical and thermal assembly testing of functional parts, and direct manufacturing of final use parts without tooling. 

PLS 3D Printers - Prodways ProMaker Series printers which is an affordable plastic printer series with a large build platform to make industrial production accessible to all users for new applications.

 

Direct Energy Deposit

LMD Laser Metal Deposition

Laser metal deposition is a manufacturing method for metals.

LMD 3D Printing Process - A  weld pool is created when the laser beam heats up the workpiece. Fine metal powder is sprayed directly into the weld pool from a nozzle. It melts there and combines with the base material. 

LMD Post Processing - Requires minimal post process machining.

Advantages & Disadvantages of LMD - LMD creates very fine structures with high build rates in comparison to other additive processes. LMD makes it possible to change between different materials in a work process easily. 

Use Cases of LMD - The process is used in industries such as the aviation and aerospace industry, energy technology, petrochemicals, the automotive industry, as well as medical technology.

LMD 3D Printers - Trumpf TruLaser Cell 3000 can process small to medium sized components extremely efficiently. Another machine considered the big sister to the TruLaser Cell 3000 is the TruLaser Cell 7000. It provides more performance and more processing space. Additional machines include: FormAlloy X-Series machines and L-Series machines.

  

 

LENS Laser Engineered Net Shape

Is an AM technology developed for creating metal parts directly from a CAD solid model by using a metal powder injected into a molten pool created by a high-powered laser beam.

LENS 3D Printing Process - A high power laser is used to melt metal powder supplied to the focus of the laser beam through a deposition head. The head is moved up vertically after each layer is completed.

LENS Post Processing - Light machining, surface finishing, or heat treatment may be applied to achieve compliance to make net shape parts, where initial production of the item is very close to the final or net shape.

LENS Advantages & Disadvantages - Laser power is dependant on floor space available for laser. The more floor space, the more energy that can be used.

Use Cases of LENS - Repairing of metal components in machines, drive shaft repairs, and used in gas turbines.

LENS 3D Printers - Optomec LENS often reduce manufacturing and material costs, reduce process time, reduce environmental impact, and improve product performance.

 

 

EBAM Electron Beam Additive Manufacturing

Sciaky’s Electron Beam Additive Manufacturing  is a one-of-a-kind metal additive manufacturing technology that excels at producing large scale, high value metal parts.

EBAM 3D Printing Process - Sciaky’s electron beam gun deposits metal layer by layer, until the part reaches near-net shape and is ready for finish machining.

EBAM Advantages & Disadvantages - Reduces material costs, lead times, and machining times. The fastest, most cost-effective AM process in the market for producing large metal parts.

Use Cases of EBAM - Rapid prototypes and production parts. EBAM has been used to create titanium fuel tank domes for satellite fuel tanks. 

EBAM 3D Printers - Sciaky machines are made to save manufacturers significant time and money on the production of high-performance metallic structures. Sciaky provides the largest build envelope in the market for large metal part production.

 

RPD Rapid Plasma Deposition

An additive manufacturing process that delivers structural titanium parts with reduced lead time and cost.

RPD 3D Printing Process -  Titanium wire is melted in an inert atmosphere of argon gas and precisely and rapidly built up in layers to a part.

RPD Post Processing -  Requires minimal post process machining.

Advantages & Disadvantages of RPD - RPD has lower cost, less machining, less material used, and reduced lead time.

Use Cases of RPD - Used primarily in the aviation and aerospace industry.

RPD 3D Printers - Norsk Titanium’s MERKE IV printer is the faster titanium printer in the commercial production market. It’s faster than traditional printing and uses about 25% less titanium to print each part.

 

PAM Pellet Additive Manufacturing

Pam technology enables to run small & medium scale productions while making profit. With the mechanical performances of injection moulding and the versatility of Additive Manufacturing.

PAM 3D Printing Process -  Printing materials are fed to a single extruder as pellets instead of filament. The nozzle heats the pellets to a maximum of 350 C.

PAM Post Processing -  According to Pollen, prints require no post processing.

Advantages & Disadvantages of PAM - PAM is the most cost effective solution for metal additive manufacturing on the market. The four different extruders used allow for high resolution at the highest speeds. 

Use Cases of PAM - Used to dematerialize warehouses by manufacturing spare parts with commodity material at a competitive price with a technology allowing on demand and local production. 

PAM 3D Printers - Pollen Pam Series P is the only solution harnessing the power of raw commodity materials which makes builds 10x less expensive than the competitors and 110% stronger than injection molding. Pollen Pam Series M offers the most affordable metal additive manufacturing solution in the market.

 

 

Cold Spray 

CSAM Cold Spray Additive Manufacturing

Cold spray is a solid-state coating deposition technology which has recently been applied as an additive manufacturing process to fabricate individual components and to repair damaged components. 

CSAM 3D Printing Process -  In this process, high-temperature compressed gases like nitrogen or helium  are used as the propulsive gas to accelerate powder feedstock to a high velocity, and to induce deposition when the powders impact onto a substrate.

CSAM Post Processing -   Typically, CSAM fabricates a semi-finished product that requires post processing. Heat treatment is commonly applied to better the mechanical properties of CSAM.

Advantages & Disadvantages of CSAM - Parts are suitable for repair, the method is extremely flexible, and CSAM can produce large parts. However, a disadvantage is CSAM’s poor mechanical properties. 

Use Cases of CSAM - Primarily used for creating components that require rotational symmetry. Examples include tubes and cylinder walls.

CSAM 3D Printers - The SPEE3D machine has a revolutionary advance in printing speeds using a supersonic print nozzle.

 

TKF Titomic Kinetic Fusion

Cold-gas dynamic spraying of titanium or titanium alloy particles onto a scaffold to produce a load-bearing structure.

TKF 3D Printing Process -  Pressurized gas is used in cold-gas spraying of titanium particles onto a surface or scaffold. Layer upon layer is built up until final product is finished.

TKF Post Processing -  Similar to CSAM, TKF requires post processing due to the part being semi-finished. Heat is used to strengthen the final part. 

Advantages & Disadvantages of TKF - Fuse dissimilar metals for large seamless structures with enhanced engineered properties. Build stronger structures without welding, folding or bending weak points. It can be used with a wide range of metals, as well as ceramic, glass, stone and plastic. 

Use Cases of TKF - Used to boost Australia’s manufacturing industry by using mineral sands abundant with Titanium. It can be used for building bike frames to prototyping.  

TKF 3D Printers - Titomic’s machine is known for its efficient use of energy and resources to deliver final printed part.

 

 

BJ Binder Jetting 

BJ Binder Jetting

Binder Jetting is an AM process in which  powder particles are joined together by a liquid binding agent.

BJ 3D Printing Process - A solid part is formed one layer at a time when a binder is selectively deposited onto the powder bed. The materials commonly used in Binder Jetting are metals, sand, and ceramics that come in a granular form.

BJ Post Processing - Curing and sintering post-processing are used to solidify the object to achieve the best dimensional accuracy.

BJ Advantages & Disadvantages - Binder Jetting can manufacture very large parts and complex metal geometries, it is not limited by thermal effects. Only rough details can be printed with Binder Jetting, as the parts are very brittle in their green state and may fracture during post processing.

Use Cases of BJ - The fabrication of full-color prototypes, the production of large sand casting cores and molds and the manufacturing of low cost 3D printed metal parts.

BJ 3D Printers - HP Metal Jet allows for easy production of geometrically complex parts without trade-offs, EXone are among the largest systems available on the market for industrial grade materials.EXone printers are designed for efficiency and flexibility. EnvisionTEC VIRDIS3D is the fastest, most flexible robotic 3D printing platform in the casting industry. Additional machines include: Digital Metal’s P2500, and 3DEO printer.

 

CJP Color Jetting

Is an AM technology which involves two components, core and binder.

CJP Printing Process - The core material is spread into thin layers over the build platform with a roller.  The core solidifies because color binder is jetted from inkjet print heads after each layer is spread. 

CJP Post Processing - Parts can be clear coated to add a hard, smooth coating or wax coated to smooth out the surface. 

Advantages & Disadvantages of CJP - Full-color concept models in CMYK, highly complex geometries, and quick production times.

Use Cases of CJP - CJP technology is often used in concept modelling for display models, such as architectural models and demonstration models for marketing and communication. In the medical space, CJP is used for simulation models for surgery practice, ergonomics and FEA analysis.

CJP 3D Printers - 3D Systems Projet CJP Series is the most affordable, fast, and compact full-color 3D printing option. The Projet creates photo realistic parts with small feature details.